Monday, January 19, 2009

Advocators of Management

1. Henri Fayol


- Fayol has been described as the father of modern operational management theory.

- One of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management, having proposed that there are five primary functions of management: (1) planning, (2) organizing, (3) commanding, (4) coordinating, and (5) controlling

- Pioneer of the 14 principles of management. Namely:

• Specialization of labor. Specializing encourages continuous improvement in skills and the development of improvements in methods.
• Authority. The right to give orders and the power to exact obedience.
• Discipline. No slacking, bending of rules.
• Unity of command. Each employee has one and only one boss.
• Unity of direction. A single mind generates a single plan and all play their part in that plan.
• Subordination of Individual Interests. When at work, only work things should be pursued or thought about.
• Remuneration. Employees receive fair payment for services, not what the company can get away with.
• Centralization. Consolidation of management functions. Decisions are made from the top.
• Scalar Chain (line of authority). Formal chain of command running from top to bottom of the organization, like military
• Order. All materials and personnel have a prescribed place, and they must remain there.
• Equity. Equality of treatment (but not necessarily identical treatment)
• Personnel Tenure. Limited turnover of personnel. Lifetime employment for good workers.
• Initiative. Thinking out a plan and do what it takes to make it happen.
• Esprit de corps. Harmony, cohesion among personnel.

2. Frederick Winslow Taylor


­ Father of Scientific management

­ Proponent of Scientific Management Principle

­ Was one of the first management consultants

Scientific Management Principles

• Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks.
• Scientifically select, train, and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train themselves.
• Provide "Detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that worker's discrete task"
• Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks.

3. Max Weber


­ One of the founders of the modern study of sociology and public administration

­ Proposed the Beaucracy Theory which arose by sub-dividing the functions that the owner-managers originally did themselves such as supervision, personell selection, accounting and financial management, record keeping, job design, and planning.

4. Douglas McGregor


­ Proponent of theory X and Y

Theory X & Y

• Theory X - In this theory, management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can. Because of this, workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. According to this theory, employees will show little ambition without good incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can.

• Theory Y - In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious, self-motivated, anxious to accept greater responsibility, and exercise self-direction, autonomy and empowerment. It is believed in this theory that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform at the best of their abilities without being forced to abide by rules.

5. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth


­ Proponents of Laws of Human motion

­ Proponent of concept of Therblig

Therblig Concept

• Search
• Find
• Select
• Grasp
• Hold
• Position
• Assemble
• Use
• Disassemble
• Inspect
• Transport loaded
• Transport unloaded
• Pre-position for next operation
• Release load
• Unavoidable delay
• Avoidable delay
• Plan
• Rest to overcome fatigue

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